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Fast facts about the "feral cat problem"



  1. Rowan, A.N.; Kartal, T.; Hadidian, J. Cat Demographics & Impact on Wildlife in the USA, the UK, Australia and New Zealand: Facts and ValuesJournal of Applied Animal Ethics Research 2019. 

  2. APPA. 2017–2018 APPA National Pet Owners Survey; American Pet Products Association: Stamford, CT, 2018.

  3. Levy, J.K.; Crawford, P.C. Humane strategies for controlling feral cat populationsJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2004, 225, 1354–1360. 

  4. Nutter, F.B. Evaluation of a Trap-Neuter-Return Management Program for Feral Cat Colonies: Population Dynamics, Home Ranges, and Potentially Zoonotic Diseases, North Carolina State University: Raleigh, NC, 2005. 

  5. Boone, J.D.; Miller, P.S.; Briggs, J.R.; Benka, V.A.W.; Lawler, D.F.; Slater, M.; Levy, J.K.; Zawistowski, S. A Long-Term Lens: Cumulative Impacts of Free-Roaming Cat Management Strategy and Intensity on Preventable Cat MortalitiesFrontiers in Veterinary Science 2019, 6. 

  6. Bialik, C. Trying to Herd a Cat StatThe Wall Street Journal October 12, 2006.

  7. Keith, C. Damn lies and cat statisticsSFGate August 18, 2010. 

  8. Normand, C.M. Feral cat virus infection prevalence, survival, population density, and multi-scale habitat use in an exurban landscape. M.S., Arkansas Tech University: Ann Arbor, 2014. 

  9. Spehar, D.D.; Wolf, P.J. A Case Study in Citizen Science: The Effectiveness of a Trap-Neuter-Return Program in a Chicago NeighborhoodAnimals 2018, 7. 

  10. Spehar, D.D.; Wolf, P.J. Back to School: An Updated Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Long-Term Trap-Neuter-Return Program on a University’s Free-Roaming Cat PopulationAnimals 2019, 9. 

  11. Kreisler, R.E.; Cornell, H.N.; Levy, J.K. Decrease in Population and Increase in Welfare of Community Cats in a Twenty-Three Year Trap-Neuter-Return Program in Key Largo, FL: The ORCAT ProgramFrontiers in Veterinary Science 2019, 6. 

  12. Spehar, D.D.; Wolf, P.J. An Examination of an Iconic Trap-Neuter-Return Program: The Newburyport, Massachusetts Case StudyAnimals 2017, 7. 

  13. Schmidt, P.M.; Lopez, R.R.; Collier, B.A. Survival, Fecundity, and Movements of Free-Roaming CatsJournal of Wildlife Management 2007, 71, 915–919. 

  14. Gehrt, S.D.; Wilson, E.C.; Brown, J.L.; Anchor, C. Population Ecology of Free-Roaming Cats and Interference Competition by Coyotes in Urban ParksPLoS ONE 2013, 8, e75718. 

  15. Horn, J.A.; Mateus-Pinilla, N.; Warner, R.E.; Heske, E.J. Home range, habitat use, and activity patterns of free-roaming domestic catsThe Journal of Wildlife Management 2011, 75, 1177–1185. 

  16. Levy, J.K.; Gale, D.W.; Gale, L.A. Evaluation of the effect of a long-term trap-neuter-return and adoption program on a free-roaming cat populationJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2003, 222, 42–46. 

  17. Swarbrick, H.; Rand, J. Application of a Protocol Based on Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) to Manage Unowned Urban Cats on an Australian University CampusAnimals 2018, 8. 

  18. Zawistowski, S.; Morris, J.; Salman, M.D.; Ruch-Gallie, R. Population dynamics, overpopulation, and the welfare of companion animals: New insights on old and new dataJournal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 1998, 1, 193–206. 

  19. Bartlett, P.C.; Bartlett, A.; Walshaw, S.; Halstead, S. Rates of euthanasia and adoption for dogs and cats in Michigan animal shelters. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2005, 8, 97–104.

  20. Lord, L.K.; Wittum, T.E.; Ferketich, A.K.; Funk, J.A.; Rajala-Schultz, P.J. Search and identification methods that owners use to find a lost catJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2007, 230, 217–220. 

  21. Scarlett, J. Population Statistics. In Shelter Medicine for Veterinarians and Staff; Miller, L., Zawistowski, S., Eds.; Wiley-Blackwell: Hoboken, New Jersey, 2013; pp. 13–20 ISBN 978-0-8138-1993-8.

  22. Edinboro, C.H.; Watson, H.N.; Fairbrother, A. Association between a shelter-neuter-return program and cat health at a large municipal animal shelter. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2016, 248, 298–308. 

  23. Hamilton, F. Implementing Nonlethal Solutions for Free-Roaming Cat Management in a County in the Southeastern United StatesFrontiers in Veterinary Science 2019, 6, 259. 

  24. APPA. 2019-2020 APPA National Pet Owners Survey; American Pet Products Association: Stamford, CT, 2019. 

  25. APPMA. 1996–1997 APPMA National Pet Owners Survey; American Pet Products Manufacturers Association: Greenwich, CT, 1997.

  26. AVMA. U.S. Pet Ownership & Demographics Sourcebook, 2nd Edition; American Veterinary Medical Association: Schaumburg, IL, 2007.

  27. Stoskopf, M.K.; Nutter, F.B. Analyzing approaches to feral cat management—one size does not fit allJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2004, 225, 1361–1364. 

  28. Tennent, J.; Downs, C.T. Abundance and home ranges of feral cats in an urban conservancy where there is supplemental feeding: A case study from South AfricaAfrican Zoology 2008, 43, 218–229. 

  29. Jones, A.L.; Downs, C.T. Managing Feral Cats on a University’s Campuses: How Many Are There and Is Sterilization Having an Effect? Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 2011, 14, 304–320. 

  30. Gunther, I.; Finkler, H.; Terkel, J. Demographic differences between urban feeding groups of neutered and sexually intact free-roaming cats following a trap-neuter-return procedureJournal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2011, 238, 1134–1140. 

  31. Bissonnette, V.; Lussier, B.; Doizé, B.; Arsenault, J. Impact of a trap-neuter-return event on the size of free-roaming cat colonies around barns and stables in Quebec: A randomized controlled trialCanadian Journal of Veterinary Research 2018, 82, 192–197. 

  32. Castillo, D.; Clarke, A.L. Trap/Neuter/Release Methods Ineffective in Controlling Domestic Cat “Colonies” on Public Lands. Natural Areas Journal 2003, 23, 247–253. 

  33. Natoli, E.; Maragliano, L.; Cariola, G.; Faini, A.; Bonanni, R.; Cafazzo, S.; Fantini, C. Management of feral domestic cats in the urban environment of Rome (Italy). Preventive Veterinary Medicine 2006, 77, 180–185. 

  34. Zasloff, L.R.; Hart, L.A. Attitudes and Care Practices of Cat Caretakers in Hawaii. Anthrozoös 1998, 11, 242–248. 

  35. Tan, K.; Rand, J.; Morton, J. Trap-Neuter-Return Activities in Urban Stray Cat Colonies in AustraliaAnimals 2017, 7, 46. 

  36. Spehar, D.D.; Wolf, P.J. Integrated Return-to-Field and Targeted Trap-Neuter-Vaccinate-Return Programs Result in Reductions of Feline Intake and Euthanasia at Six Municipal Animal SheltersFrontiers in Veterinary Science 2019, 6. 

  37. Ma, X.; Monroe, B.; Cleaton, J.; Orciari, L.; Gigante, C.; Kirby, J.; Chipman, R.; Fehlner-Gardiner, C.; Cedillo, V.; Petersen, B.; et al. Public Veterinary Medicine: Public Health: Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2018Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 2020, 256, 195–208.

  38. Sung, J.H.; Hayano, M.; Okagaki, T.; Mastri, A. A Case of Human Rabies and Ultrastructure of the Negri BodyJournal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology 1976, 35, 541–559. 

  39. Moran, G.J.; Talan, D.A.; Mower, W.; Newdow, M.; Ong, S.; Nakase, J.Y.; Pinner, R.W.; Childs, J.E. Appropriateness of rabies postexposure prophylaxis treatment for animal exposuresJournal of the American Medical Association 2000, 284, 1001–1007. 

  40. Steele, M.T.; Ma, O.J.; Nakase, J.; Moran, G.J.; Mower, W.R.; Ong, S.; Krishnadasan, A.; Talan, D.A. Epidemiology of animal exposures presenting to emergency departmentsAcademic Emergency Medicine 2007, 14, 398–403. 

  41. Dubey, J.P.; Jones, J.L. Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in the United States. International Journal for Parasitology 2008, 38, 1257–1278.

  42. CDC. Toxoplasmosis: Prevention & Control 2018.

  43. Krueger, W.; Hilborn, E.; Converse, R.; Wade, T. Drinking water source and human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States: a cross-sectional analysis of NHANES data. BMC Public Health 2014, 14, 711.

  44. Jones, J.L.; Kruszon-Moran, D.; Elder, S.; Rivera, H.N.; Press, C.; Montoya, J.G.; McQuillan, G.M. Toxoplasma gondii Infection in the United States, 2011–2014. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2018, 98, 551–557.

  45. Solmi, F.; Hayes, J.F.; Lewis, G.; Kirkbride, J.B. Curiosity killed the cat: no evidence of an association between cat ownership and psychotic symptoms at ages 13 and 18 years in a UK general population cohort. Psychological Medicine 2017, 1–9.

  46. Sugden, K.; Moffitt, T.E.; Pinto, L.; Poulton, R.; Williams, B.S.; Caspi, A. Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in Humans? Evidence from a Population-Representative Birth Cohort. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0148435.

  47. Jessup, D.A.; Miller, M.A. The Trickle-Down Effect. The Wildlife Professional 2011, 5, 62–64.

  48. Guarino, B. Another black mark against domestic cats: They’re killing Hawaii’s rare monk seals. The Washington Post October 18, 2016.

  49. Lafferty, K.D. Sea otter health: Challenging a pet hypothesis. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife 2015, 4, 291–294.

  50. Tinker, M.T.; Hatfield, B.B. California Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) Census Results, Spring 2016; U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1018, 2016; p. 10.

  51. Rogers, P. California sea otter population reaches record high number. The Mercury News September 19, 2016.

  52. Sprague, R.S.; Walters, J.S.; Baron-Taltre, B.; Davis, N. Main Hawaiian Islands Monk Seal Management Plan; National Marine Fisheries Service, Pacific Islands Region: Honolulu, HI, 2015.

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